Enacted in 1986, this Consumer Protection Act protects the interests of consumers in India against deficiencies and defects in goods or services. It makes provision for the establishment of consumer councils and other authorities for the easier and quicker settlement of consumers' disputes and related matters. This page answers all your queries related to the CPA Act, 1986 (also known as COPRA Act).
consumer protection act 1986 explained
A Consumer is a person who purchases a product or avails a service for a
consideration, either for his personal use or to earn his livelihood by means of self
employment. The consideration may be:
- Partly paid and partly promised.
It also includes a beneficiary of such goods/services when such use is made with the
approval of such person.
A person is not a consumer if he/she:
- purchases any goods or avails any service free of charge;
- purchases a good or hires a service for commercial purpose;
- avails any service under contract of service
“Goods” means every kind of movable property other than actionable claims and money, and includes stock and shares, growing crops, grass and things attached to or forming part of the land, which are agreed to be severed before sale or under the contract of the sale.
“Defect” means any fault, imperfection or shortcoming in the quality, quantity, potency, purity or standard which is required to be maintained by or under any law for time being in force or under any contract, express or implied, or as is claimed by the trader in any manner whatsoever in relation to any goods.
“Service” means service of any description which is made available to potential users and include, but not limited to, the provision of facilities in connection with banking, financing, insurance, transport, processing, supply of electrical or other energy, board or lodging or both, housing construction, entertainment, amusement or the purveying of news or other information, but does not include the rendering of any service free of charge or under a contract of personal services.
Contract of Service – It implies a relationship of a master and servant and involves to obey the order in the works to be performed and as to its mode and manner of performance. This does not come within the purview of CP Act.
Contract for Service – It implies a contract whereby one party undertakes to render services e.g., profession or technical services to or for another in the performance of which, he is not subject to detailed direction and control but exercises professional skills and uses his own knowledge and decisions.
“Deficiency” means any fault, imperfection shortcoming or inadequacy in the quality, nature and manner of performance which is required to be maintained by or under any law for time being in force or has been undertaken to be performed by a person in pursuance of a contract or otherwise in relation to any service.
An “unfair trade practice” means a trade practice, which, for the purpose of promoting
any sale, use or supply of any goods or services, adopts unfair method, or unfair or
deceptive practice. Some of these practices include:
- When goods and services are not of stated standard, quality or grade;
- When second hand, renovated goods are sold as new ones;
- When goods and service do not have the claimed use, usefulness or benefit;
- When products / services do not have the claimed warranty / guarantee;
- When the price of product or service is misleading.
- False and Misleading Advertisement of selling at Bargain price.
- Offering gifts, prizes, etc. to lure customers with no intention of providing
- Selling goods which do not fall within the safety standards set up by
- Hoarding or destroying goods with the intention of raising the cost of these or
similar goods manufactured in greater number so as to manipulate higher prices.
- Manufacturing or offering spurious goods or adopting deceptive practices in
the provision of services.
Do you know?
- “Goods once sold will not be taken back” or
- “No exchange”, or
- “No refund under any circumstances”
It amounts to Unfair Trade Practice and does not carry any legal weight
manipulation of price or conditions of delivery or to affect flow of supplies in the market relating to goods or services in such a manner as to impose on the consumers unjustified costs or restrictions and shall include—
a) Delay beyond the period agreed to by a trader in supply of such goods or
in providing the services which has led or is likely to lead to rise in the
b) Any trade practice which requires a consumer to buy, hire or avail of any
goods or, as the case may be, services as condition precedent to buying,
hiring or availing of other goods or services
Right to Safety
The right to be protected against the marketing of goods and services, which are hazardous to life and property.
Right to be informed
The right to be informed about the quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of goods or services, as the case may be so as to protect the consumer against unfair trade practices.
Right to Choose
The right to be assured, wherever possible, access to a variety of goods and services at competitive prices.
Right to be heard
The right to be heard and to be assured that consumer’s interests will receive due consideration at appropriate fora.
Right to Redressal
The right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices or restrictive trade
practices or unscrupulous exploitation of consumers.
Right to Consumer Education
It is right of every Indian citizen to be educated on matters of consumer protection and the rights given by Consumer Protection Act 1986.
The Act provides for establishment of Consumer Protection Councils at Centre, State and District levels. The purpose of these Councils are to review consumer related policies of the government and suggest measures for further improvements for protecting and promoting
rights of the consumers. The composition of these councils is broad based. The Minister Incharge of Consumer Affairs in the Centre is the Chairman of the Central Consumer Protection Council and it has other official and non-official members. The State Consumer Protection Council is headed by Minister In-charge of Consumer Affairs in the State and the District Consumer Protection Council is headed by the Collector of the
District. These Councils are advisory in nature and their object is to protect the rights of the consumers enshrined under the Act.
The Act provides for a three tier Consumer Disputes Redressal Agencies. These are: District Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum in the District, State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission at the state level and the National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission at the national level.
A complaint may be made in writing under the following circumstances:
- Loss or damage is caused to the consumer due to unfair or restrictive trade practice of a trader or service provider;
- the article purchased by a consumer is defective;
- the services availed of by a consumer suffer from any deficiency;
- a trader or service provider, as the case may be, has charged for the goods or for the service mentioned in the complaint a price in excess of the stipulated price;
- Goods or services, which will be hazardous to life and safety, when used, are
being offered for sale to the public.
22. Any consumer;
23. Any voluntary consumer association;
24. Central Government or any State Government;
25. One or more consumers, where there are numerous consumers having same
26. In case of death of a consumer, his legal heir or representative.
As per the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 a complaint can be filed in:
District Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum (DCDRF): If the value of the claim is upto ` 20 lakh
State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission (SCDRC): If the value of the claim exceeds ` 20 lakhs but is within ` one crore.
National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission (NCDRC) If the value of the claim exceeds ` one crore.
Each District has a District Forum.
District Forum consists of three members.
Out of the three, one is President, who is or has been or is qualified to be a District Judge.
One of the members shall be a woman.
It entertains complaints where the value of claim is up to ` 20 Lakhs.
II State Commission:
• Each state has one State Commission.
• It consists of a President, who is or has been a Judge of a High Court and two other members, one of whom shall be a woman.
• Complaints can be filed in State Commission where the value of claim is above ` 20 Lakhs upto ` one Crore.
• Appeals against the Orders of the District Forums can also be filed in the State Commission.
III National Commission:
• The National Commission is located inDelhi.
• It consists of a President who is or has been a Judge of the Supreme Court and not less than four other members, one of whom shall be a woman.
• Complaints for value of claim exceeding rupees one crore can be filed in the National Commission.
• It takes appeals against Orders passed by the State Commissions.
• The Orders of this Commission can only be challenged in the Supreme Court.
A complaint shall be instituted in a Consumer Forum within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the opposite party resides or carries on business or has a branch office or personally works for gain, or where the cause of action, wholly or in part, arises.
Every complaint filed shall be accompanied by a fee as specified in the table given below in the form of crossed Demand Draft drawn on a nationalized bank or through a crossed Indian Postal Order drawn in favour of the Registrar of the State Commission and payable at the respective place where the State Commission or the National Commission is situated.
The complainants who are Below the Poverty Line shall be entitled for the exemption of payment of fee for complaints upto rupees one lakh on production of an attested copy of the Antyodaya Anna Yojana card.
- The complaint can be filed on a plain paper.
- Stamp paper is not required for declaration.
- It should contain the details of the complainant and the opposite party.
- Complaint can be registered, in person, by the complainant or through his authorized agent or by post addressed to the Redressal Agency.
- It is not compulsory to engage a lawyer to file a case.
- The fees charged are very nominal according to the value of the claim.
A complaint when made in District Forum or State Commission shall be filed in three sets and where it is filed in the National Commission, it shall be filed in four sets with additional sets equal to the number of opposite party(s).
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Every complaint shall clearly contain particulars of dispute and the relief claimed and shall also be accompanied by copies of such documents as are necessary to prove the claim made in the complaint. A Consumer can argue his own case or can be represented through authorized person or agency.
There is no need to engage a lawyer or any other pleader and consumer can himself or through his representative file and represent his complaint.
The complaint should contain the following particulars:
• Name and complete address of the complainant.
• Name and complete address of the opposite party/parties.
• Date of purchase of goods or services availed.
• Amount paid for the above purpose.
• Particulars of goods purchased with numbers or details of services availed.
• Details of complaint, whether it is against Unfair Trade Practice / supply of defective goods / deficiency in service provided / collection of excess price, should explicitly be mentioned in the complaint petition.
• Bills / receipts and copies of connected correspondence, if any.
• Relief sought for under this Act.
• Complaint should be signed by the complainant or his authorised agent.
A complaint has to be filed within two years from the date on which the cause of action/deficiency in service/defect in goods arises. However, a complaint may also be filed after two years, if the complainant satisfies the District Forum that he/she has sufficient reasons for not filing the complaint within such period.
• Aggrieved by the Order issued by the District Forum, appeal petition may be filed before the State Commission within 30 days from the date of receipt of Order.
• Aggrieved by the Order issued by the State Commission, appeal petition may be filed before the National Commission within 30 days from the date of receipt of Order.
• Aggrieved by the Order issued by the National Commission, appeal petition may be filed before the Supreme Court of India within 30 days from the date of receipt of Orders.
- Removal of defects from the goods; == Replacement of the goods;
- Refund of the price paid;
- Removal of defects or deficiencies in the services;
- Award of compensation for the loss or injury suffered;
- Discontinue and not to repeat unfair trade practice or restrictive trade practice; == To withdraw hazardous goods from being offered for sale;
- To cease manufacture of hazardous goods and desist from offering services which are hazardous in nature;
- If the loss or injury has been suffered by a large number of consumers who are not identifiable conveniently, to pay such sum (not less than 5% of the value of such defective goods or services provided) which shall be determined by the forum;
- To issue corrective advertisement to neutralize the effect of misleading advertisement;
- To provide adequate costs to parties.
- The Department of Consumer Affairs (DCA), one of the two Departments under the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution is the nodal agency for consumer protection. The mandate of the Department is consumer advocacy. Translating this mandate into action entails:
- Enabling consumers to make informed choices;
- Ensuring fair, equitable and consistent outcomes for consumers; and
- Facilitating timely and effective consumer grievance redress.
The Department seeks to empower consumers through awareness and education; enhance consumer protection through prevention of unfair trade practices; enable quality assurance and safety through standards and their conformity; and ensure access to an affordable and effective grievance redress mechanism. The Department has been entrusted with administering:
- The Consumer Protection Act, 1986
- The Legal Metrology Act, 2009
- The Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986
- The Essential Commodities Act, 1955
- The Prevention of Black Marketing and Maintenance of Supplies of Essential Commodities Act, 1980
- National Test Houses
- Consumer Cooperatives
The Department also monitors the Prices and the Availability of Essential Commodities.
Website of the Department: http://consumeraffairs.nic.in
Website of the NDRC : http://ncdrc.nic.in/
State Commisssion : http://ncdrc.nic.in/statelist.html
District Forums : http://ncdrc.nic.in/districtlist.html